Romanian Armed Forces
in the Second World War
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Marshal Ion Antonescu
General Gheorghe Avramescu
General Petre Dumitrescu
General Gheorghe Mihail
Lt. general Nicolae Ciuperca
Lt. general Nicolae Dascalescu
Lt. general Corneliu Dragalina
Lt. general Nicolae Macici
Lt. general Mihail Racovita
Lt. general Nicolae Sova
Maj. general Radu Băldescu
Maj. general Ioan Dumitrache
Maj. general Mihail Lascar
Maj. general Leonard Mociulschi
Maj. general Ioan Sion
Brig. general Radu Korne
General of Air Squad Aviator Gheorghe I. Jienescu
Maj. general Leonard Mociulschi
Maj. general Leonard Mociulschi
Uniform that belonged to general Leonard Mociulschi on display in the National Military Museum. In the top right corner there is a photo of the general on the front.
Brig. gen. Leonard Mociulschi in 1942, wearing the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class and the Iron Cross 2nd and st classes
Brig. gen. Leonard Mociulschi together with unidentified staff officers and NCOs
Colonel Mociulschi in Sighet during a holiday in the interwar period

17 October 1941: Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class

? ? 1941: Iron Cross 2nd class

6 October 1942 – 8 April 1945: 3rd Mountain Division

? ? 1942: Iron Cross 1st class

25 October 1942: German Cross in Gold

18 December 1943: Knight's Cross

19 February 1944: Mihai Viteazul Order 2nd class

11 May 1944: promoted to maj. gen.

23 March 1945: Mihai Viteazul Order with swords 3rd class

8 April – 20 May 1945: Mountain Corps

Leonard Mociulschi was born on 27 March 1889 in the village Simincea, Botosani county (in northern Moldavia). He was one of the "pure breed" mountain troops divisional commanders of WWII and also one of the most successful. He started his military career in 1910, when he was admitted in the Infantry Officer School. He graduated in 1912 and received the rank of 2nd lieutenant. During WWI he was lieutenant and then a captain (in 1917). He was promoted major in 1920. In 1932 he was assigned the command of the mountain battalion in Sighetul Marmatiei and received the rank of lt. colonel. He held this position until 1937, when he was promoted to the rank of colonel.

On 10 February 1941 he was named deputy commander of the 1st Mountain Brigade, which was under the leadership of brig. gen. Mihail Lascar. This unit was part of the 3rd Romanian Army and saw action initially in Northern Bukovina. It liberated together with the 4th Mountain Brigade the region's capital, Cernauti, where he commanded a group that made the direct attack on the city. Then advanced to the Dniester River, the pre-1940 border with the Soviet Union. On the eastern bank of the river was the fortified Stalin Line the Romanian mountain troops managed to breach in several places on 17 and 18 July, after some very heavy fighting. This is where colonel Mociulschi first distinguished himself, personally directing the crossing under enemy fire. He was awarded the Mihai Viteazul Order 3rd class for this action.

The 1st Mountain Brigade advanced along with the rest of the 3rd Army all the way to the Nogayisk Steppe. There, from 24 to 29 September, it took part in the so-called Battle of the Azov Sea , which resulted in the destruction of the 9th and 18th Soviet Armies. Being the mountain brigade with the fewest losses until then and thus the most battle-worthy, it was selected to participate in the general von Manstein's assault on Crimea. After they had penetrated the defenses in the Salkovo Isthmus, the Romanian mountain troops started a followed closely the retreating Soviet forces. Colonel Mociulschi commanded one of the three detachments organized by the 1st Mountain Division for the operation. It took 1,360 prisoners, including an entire Soviet cavalry regiment.

The "next stop" for the mountain troops was Sevastopol. The German 11th Army started the first siege of the fortress in the winter of 1941. Colonel Leonard Mociulschi was named commander of the Attack Group of the brigade (four battalions), which initially did not have all the forces at its disposal, two battalions being deployed on coastline. By 23 December 1941, the 1st Mountain Brigade managed to take the Chapel Hill and the Chorgun and Karlovka villages.

His conduct during the first year of the war earned him the promotion to the rank of brigadier general. In April 1942 he was reassigned to the 4th Mountain Division again as deputy commander. This unit, commanded by maj. general Gheorghe Manoliu was also in Crimea since 1941. In June and July it took part in the second assault on Sevastopol, where it played a key role in the offensive of the 54th Corps and entered the city together with the German troops. He was awarded the German Cross in Gold for his deeds in this battle.

After the failure of the 3rd Mountain Division's offensive in the Caucasus, its commander, brigadier general Radu Falfanescu was sacked and replaced with brigadier general Leonard Mociulschi. The Soviet winter counter-offensive found the 3rd Mountain Division on defensive positions in the Krimskaya-Abinskaya region. It was subordinated to the German 9th Infantry Division. Mociulschi had under his direct command the 3rd Mountain Group and the German 57th Infantry Regiment. In January 1943 the mountain troops faced the Soviet assaults, which lasted from 12 to 14 and then from 26 January to 18 February. It was repulsed with heavy casualties for the attackers.

After this, the 3rd Mountain Division was moved to Moldovanskoe and subordinated to the 9th, 97th and 101st German Divisions. Thus general Mociulschi did not have a sector under his direct command, as his battalions were assigned to different German units. However, during the third Soviet assault on the Kuban bridgehead, in May 1943, his mountain troops again supported the brunt of the offensive and gave a very good account of themselves.

The 3rd Mountain Division was pulled out of the first line in June and sent to Crimea in August, for rest and refitting. In September 1943, the Kuban was evacuated and during the night of 31 October/1 November the Soviets landed near Kerch and at Eltigen. The bridgeheads were contained and, in December, the 6th Cavalry Division, reinforced with two battalions from the 3rd Mountain Division and German assault guns, eliminated the forces at Eltigen. About 800 Soviet soldiers under the leadership of the CO of the 318th Rifle Division, managed to escape from Eltigen during the night of 6/7 December and occupy the Mithridates Hill, south of Kerch. They entrenched their positions there and received reinforcements from over the straits. Brigadier general Mociulschi received the task to take out the strongpoint and he did so by 11 December. 1,100 Soviet soldiers were killed and 820 taken prisoner. Large quantities of weapons were also captured: 720 submachine-guns, 60 heavy machine-guns and 17 AT rifles. He was awarded Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for this action.

Between 29 December 1943 and 4 January 1944, he commanded a grouping of mountain troops that, together with the grouping of maj. general Ion Dumitrache, took out over 3,700 partisans in the Yaila Mountains in Crimea. Following his latest victories, Leonard Mociulschi received Mihai Viteazul Order 2nd class. He was also promoted to the rank of major general.

After the Soviet breakthrough into Crimea in April 1944, the 3rd Mountain Division pulled back to Sevastopol, where it was situated on the right wing of the defensive perimeter. General Mociulschi assumed command of the entire German 5th Corps (to which his division belonged), while general Allmedinger was away in Germany. He repulsed several Soviet attacks, the one on 23 April being the most powerful (it was supported by approximately 100 tanks). By 30 April, the division had only two battalions and the mounted squadron in the first line, the rest being either evacuated or kept in reserve. After the Red Army broke the front around Seavstopol, the 17th Army retreated to the Kherson Cape, from the boarding on ships had to take place. During the night of 9/10 May, the 3rd Mountain Division (in fact only the 5th, 12th and 21st Battalions) formed the outposts of the Kherson position. They were evacuated within the following days.

Major general Mociulschi and his division were assigned to the 1st Romanian Army and were deployed on the border with Hungary in southwestern Transylvania. He used the period away from the front to start reorganizing the battalions, which had suffered many casualties in the last year. This process wasn't complete on 23 August, when marshal Antonescu was toppled and King Mihai I announced the armistice.

After several border clashes, the Hungarian Army started its offensive in southwestern Transylvania. General Mociulschi was in command of the Crisuri Group, made up of the 3rd Mountain Division (minus two mountain battalions), 2 regional fixed battalions and one frontier-guard battalion. He faced the 12th and 9th Hungarian Infantry Divisions, which attacked on the Crisul Negru Valley towards Beius on 12 September. The 3rd Mountain Division managed to fight a delaying action on several successive lines. By 17 September it was at the outskirts of the city. The Hungarian troops attacked supported by 30 tanks and breached the defense in several places. General Mociulschi had at his disposal only one AT gun, because the 39th AT Company was also temporarily away. With the intervention of the two battalions, which had arrived in the meanwhile, he managed to save the division from encirclement and to pull back, abandoning Beius. However, in six days of fighting he had delayed the Hungarian offensive long enough for the Romanian and Soviet reinforcements to arrive and caused over 1,200 casualties (including 10 tanks destroyed) to the attackers.

The 3rd Mountain Division was assigned to the Soviet 33rd Corps which supplied an AT regiment and a Katyusha battalion were in order to strengthen it. On 22 September the Soviet and Romanian troops started the offensive. Beius was retaken and the division pushed on towards west, following the retreating Axis forces. It had captured 2,000 prisoners by the time it had reached positions south of Oradea. The Germans launched the Operation Zigeunerbaron and attacked towards Salont. They pushed back the Soviet divisions on its flanks and the mountain troops were in danger of being surrounded. Maj. general Mociulschi managed to retreat his men out of the bulge and save the division. The Soviet command brought 2 tank brigades in the area and attacked. The 3rd Mountain Division advanced west of Oradea, threatening to encircle the Axis troops inside the city and forcing them to pull out.

After this, general Mociulschi and his men passed into pre-1940 Hungary and were engaged in the battle for Debrecen. They cleared the western side of the city of German troops, after some heavy street-by-street fights. Some 274 prisoners were taken and two tanks were captured. The offensive continued until the division reached Miskolc in mid November.

By that date it has received reinforcements from Romania and was completely equipped and manned. It returned under Romanian command and was subordinated to the 4th Corps (from the 1st Army). The new theatre of operations were the Bükk Mountains where general Mociulschi faced the German 18th Gebirgsjäger Division. The fighting was very hard because of the difficult weather, but gradually the Germans were pushed back. During the night of 15/16 December most of the division infiltrated around Axis positions on mountain trails, through blizzard. The Germans were forced to retreat quickly to avoid being encircled.

The 1st Romanian Army crossed into Slovakia, where it was engaged in the Lucenec area. On 14 and 15 January the 3rd Mountain Division crossed the wooded hills west of the city and forced the Axis troops opposing the Soviet 35th Corps in the area to retreat. In February it was engaged in the Javorina Mountains, facing the 8th Gebirgsjäger Division. By the end of the month it had managed to take all the major peaks. He was awarded the Mihai Viteazul Order with swords 3rd class. Only three Romanian generals received the model 1941 3rd and 2nd classes and the model 1944 3rd class of the order, Mociulschi being one of them. Incidentally all were mountain troops commanders.

On 8 April, when maj. general Mociulschi was replaced from command, the 3rd Mountain Division had reached the river Hron. Thus ended almost four continuous years of service on the front. He was named commander of the Mountain Corps in Romania.

In 1947 he was retired and on 12 August 1948 was arrested and imprisoned without a trial. He was released on 10 October 1955 from the Jilava penitentiary, but he was forced to live at Blaj at I. I. Micu Clain Street, no. 33. He had a poor health condition after his detention and no pension, not even proper clothes. In October 1955 he requested that his pension be restored in order to sustain himself. He got a job as a railway worker and from August 1956 he also received a small pension. But it wasn't enough and his wife got a job as a worker a timber warehouse and then at a flower glasshouse. His pension was gradually increased from 1959 onwards. In August 1960 he moved to the village of Purcareni, Brasov county, and in December 1964 in Brasov, where he resided until his death. In 1967 he published his memoirs from the anti-Axis campaign. He passed away on 15 April 1979. His body was incinerated at his request and the ashes were scattered in a clearing in the Postavarul Mountains, where he used to climb.

Author: Victor Nitu
User Comments Add Comment
Mihai  (14 August 2009)
Sunt bucuros ca exista astfel de site-uri pentru a ne cunoaste eroii. Pacat ca nu sunt mai multe, deoarece generatia tanara are nevoie de astfel de modele.

Melinescu Marin  (12 April 2009)
Un pios omagiu generalului Leonard Mociulschi, de la a carui nastere s-au implinit anul acesta 120 de ani (1879-2009) si respectiv 30 de ani de la trecerea la cele vesnice (1979-2009).

Vasile  (19 November 2007)
Ma numesc Vasile Suciu. Momentan sunt stabilit la Alba Iulia. Am terminat liceul la Blaj in anul 1979. In anii scolari 1977 - 1979 am stat in chirie pe strada I.I.Micu Clain, nr. 33, la familia Balasel. L-am cunoscut pe bravul general L. Mociulschi la finalul anului 1978, in luna octombrie, cand a fost in vizita la Blaj. Recunosc, cu rusine si parere de rau in acelasi timp, ca la acea data nu am realizat in totalitate cu cine am stat de vorba timp de 3 zile. 
Ulterior am urmat cursurile Universitatii din Brasov, unde printr-o intamplare fericita l-am cunoscut, fiind la Biblioteca Tehnica din Tractorul, pe fiul generalului, pe care as dori cu mare placere sa-l pot contacta. Daca citeste acest mesaj as dori sa ma contacteze la mail


H.Marinescu  (3 November 2007)
Intre glorie si sacrificiu, personalitatea generalului Leonard Mociulschi isi regaseste astazi locul bine meritat in matca valorilor acestui popor. Acordarea denumirii onorifice de "General Leonard Mociulschi" Batalionului 21 Vanatori de Munte, constituie o repunere in demnitate a numelui generalului erou, general care si-a petrecut aproape 8 ani din viata ca "dusman al poporului" in inchisorile comuniste.
Doresc sa felicit familia Mociulschi, familie care a dat un mare roman si un mare ostean natiunii romane!

marginean alexandru  (30 April 2007)
Ma numesc Marginean Alexandru locuiesc cu familia in orasul Iernut si sunt fiul raposatului Marginean Alexandru ,veteran de razboi si apropiat marelui erou gen Mociulschi Leonard .Tatal meu a fost soferul acestui mare patriot in timpul celui de-al doilea razboi mondial, povestindu-mi multe lucruri frumoase despre acest brav erou.Imi spunea cu multa mandrie si nu numai mie ci si altor concetateni simtind evident mandria ca a fost atat de aproape de unul dintre cei mai mari generali de vanatori de munte pe care i-a avut tara noastra, ca era un om foarte punctual, la ora 6 dimineata masina trebuia sa fie in stare perfecta de functionare soferul disciplinat pregatit pentru o noua zi de front, alaturi de general.
Foarte putini soferi puteau sa reziste pe front unui asemenea program initiat de un om care nu stia altceva decat sa-si faca datoria sa respecte disciplina militara, sa fie rau cu cei rai si foarte omenos cu cei buni si viteji
Tatal meu mi-a povestit cum i-a facut o vizita la Blaj in perioada in care generalul a trait izolat in acele locuri, fiind foarte afectat de chipul ravasit al acestuia si de viata pe care o ducea un om care a luptat cu devotament pentru tara si poporul lui obtinand atatea victorii de-a lungul carierei sale.M-am bucurat foarte mult cand pe acest 
sit am vazut pentru prima data chipul generalului care se asemana foarte mult cu descrierea pe care tatal meu o facea
 cand povestea despre razboi si despre gen.L.Mociulschi
Mi-a spus multe intamplari de pe front ,dar de abia acum imi dau seama cum de tatal meu a fost un om atat de apreciat dea lungul vietii si iubit, pentru ca de tanar a fost aproape de o mare personalitate istorica de la care a avut ce sa invete .

Adrian Leonard Mociulschi  (26 February 2007)
In urma Declaratiei din aprilie 1964 a P.M.R. - momentul de emancipare a relatiilor Romaniei fata de Uniunea Sovietica - Leonard Mociulschi a fost repus in drepturi, fiindu-i inapoiata uniforma militara si fiind avansat la rangul de General-Locotenent(r). La funeraliile sale s-a acordat onorul militar. Dupa ce a fost incinerat, la Crematoriul Uman din Bucuresti, cenusa Generalului de Corp de Armata Leonard Mociulschi a fost impartita in trei urne si imprastiata pe cele mai inalte piscuri montane din Romania: varful Moldoveanu (2544m), varful Omu (2507m) si varful Postavarul (cota 1801). [conform site-ului "General Mociulschi" -]

doru pogoreanu  (6 October 2006)
la inceputul primului razboi mondial , Leonard Mociulschi era comandantul companiei a X-a la Regimentul 29 Infanterie Dorohoi(conform jurnalului istoric al Regimentului)