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> Romanians in the German army after August, 1944.
Radu
Posted: May 08, 2004 10:57 pm
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The article is in Romanian only. I'll translated it a bit later.


Romanii din trupele SS


Circa 12.000 de romani au imbracat uniforma trupelor Waffen SS, avind tricolorul pe mineca


Florian Bichir
Duminica, 09 Mai 2004


9 mai, vazut dintr-o alta perspectiva

O divizie romaneasca a luptat pina in ultima clipa contra trupelor sovietice, acceptind sa se predea numai aliatilor Unitati speciale de comando formate din romani s-au antrenat sub conducerea celebrului Otto Skorzeny


Ani de-a rindul, 9 Mai a fost sarbatorit ca zi a ?victoriei impotriva fascismului?, sfirsitul celui de-al doilea razboi mondial in Europa. In Romania, diviziile ?Tudor Vladimirescu? si ?Horia, Closca si Crisan?, formate in URSS la initiativa Anei Pauker si sosite in tara sub steagul comunist, au fost glorificate, iar pe 15 august 1945, prin decret regal, soldatii si ofiterii imbracati in uniforme sovietice erau reintegrati in fortele armate romane.
Asediati de sabloanele comuniste, manualele si studiile de specialitate refuza sa vorbeasca despre romanii care au luptat de bunavoie in armata lui Hitler, iar istoriografia noastra pastreaza o tacere suspecta. Fie ca ne place sau nu, acest episod apartine istoriei noastre si trebuie cunoscut; nu trebuie uitat ca Germania a reusit sa depaseasca vinovatiile istorice tocmai prin asumarea colectiva a trecutului.
?Evenimentul zilei de duminica? va prezinta istoria Armatei Nationale a guvernului in exil, creat la Viena dupa 23 August 1944. A unor romani care au luptat pina la capat impotriva comunismului, convinsi ca jertfa lor va fi consemnata ca un protest istoric in fata tavalugului sovietic care cotropise tara. Desi nu este consemnat inca in ?istoriografia oficiala?, trebuie retinut ca ultimele gloante trase impotriva trupelor Moscovei au fost ale soldatilor romani, dupa ce armata germana capitulase, iar la Berlin flutura steagul sovietic.
In timpul celei mai mari conflagratii mondiale, un important numar de cetateni romani, de nationalitate romana sau germana, au luptat, ca voluntari, in cadrul altor armate, in primul rind in Wehrmacht si in Armata Rosie. Unii dintre putinii istorici care s-au aplecat asupra acestui subiect sint Cornel I. Scafes si Horia Vl. Serbanescu, autorii monumentalei lucrari ?Armata romana. 1941-1945?.
Inca de la infiintarea sa, SS (Schutzstaffel, Copul de protectie) a fost o formatiune paramilitara organizata pe sectii, companii, escadroane si regimente. Ulterior, pe linga aceste formatiuni, au fost create unitatile Waffen SS. Din aceste unitati au facut parte si cetateni romani, atit etnici germani, cit si romani, care s-au inrolat voluntar. Pina in vara anului 1944, cu exceptia sasilor, romanii nu au servit in unitati militare germane.

Peste 75.000 de sasi imbraca uniforma germana

In ciuda presiunilor exercitate de guvernul german de a aproba germanilor de nationalitate romana inrolarea in Waffen SS si Wehrmacht, maresalul Ion Antonescu a refuzat, considerind aceasta o incalcare a suveranitatii statului roman. Dupa ocuparea Iugoslaviei si trecerea Banatului sirbesc sub administratie germana, liderii comunitatilor germane au sugerat ca voluntarii din Banat ar fi mai usor convinsi sa se inroleze daca ar exista o unitate SS creata special pentru ei. Astfel a fost infiintata Divizia 7 Munte SS ?Prinz Eugen?. Comandantul acestei divizii a fost inca de la inceput Artur Phleps, fost general in armata romana, devenit ulterior comandantul Corpului de Munte SS.
Ca urmare a pierderile grele suferite de germani, abia la 13 aprilie 1943, Antonescu si-a dat acordul ca membri ai comunitatii germane sa se inroleze in fortele armate germane. Pina la sfirsitul anului 1943, mai mult de 60.000 de tineri germani s-au inrolat in unitatile Waffen SS si aproximativ 15.000 in Wehrmacht si Organizatia ?Todt?.

Guvernul de la Viena

O a doua categorie de voluntari care au luptat in Wehrmacht si Waffen SS au reprezentat-o etnicii romani. Dupa evenimentele produse la 23 august 1944 si iesirea Romaniei din Axa, la Viena a fost creat un guvern romanesc de exil, sub conducerea lui Horia Sima si format in mare parte din legionarii care se refugiasera in Germania dupa ianuarie 1941. Cu aceasta ocazie a luat fiinta si o ?Armata Nationala Romana?, alcatuita exclusiv din voluntari, care sa continue lupta alaturi de Germania impotriva Rusiei Sovietice. Modelul acestei armate nu a fost unic, alaturi de Germania luptind mai multe ?armate nationale? ale unor natiuni cotropite de URSS: rusi (?Armata de Eliberare Rusa?, sub comanda generalului Vlasov), ?Brigada Bielorusa?, bulgari, croati, ucraineni etc.
Comandantul acestui Corp a fost desemnat generalul de divizie Platon Chirnoaga, fostul comandant al Diviziei 4 romane, cazut prizonier in luptele pentru fortarea Tisei, in octombrie 1944.
Unitatile urmau sa fie create in cadrul Waffen SS, iar in noiembrie 1944 a fost infiintat ?Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment Nr. 1?, format din membri ai Garzii de Fier, militari si specialisti romani aflati la pregatire sau lucru in Germania la 23 august 1944. Lor li s-au adaugat unii prizonieri romani. Dupa unele documente, generalul Avramescu, comandantul Armatei 4 romane, planuia sa treaca, in iarna 1944/1945, de partea cealalta a frontului, impreuna cu intreaga trupa pe care o conducea. Planul lui a fost insa deconspirat, iar el, asasinat de sovietici.
?Cel mai important lucru pe care l-a savirsit guvernul de la Viena a fost salvarea onoarei nationale (...) Contributia armatei nationale din punct de vedere al numarului n-a fost mare, dar, pe plan moral, a reprezentat un protest istoric impotriva acelora care si-au cautat salvarea in tradarea aliatului de ieri?, sustin veteranii Armatei Nationale de la Viena. In plus, guvernul roman de la Viena a salvat peste 12.000 de prizonieri romani internati in lagarele germane, care mureau de foame.

Ultimele gloante impotriva bolsevicilor

Seful Armatei Nationale era Generalul Platon Chirnoaga, ministru de razboi in guvernul de la Viena, avind ca personal de conducere pe locotenent-colonelul Ciobanu, pe colonelul Alexandrescu si pe comandorul Bailla pentru problemele de aviatie. Voluntarii au fost adunati in tabara de antrenament de la Döllersheim, in Austria, si s-a format prima dintre unitatile viitoarei divizii ?Waffen-Grenadier Division der SS Rumanische Nr. 1?. Comandantul Regimentului 1 a fost numit Maiorul Wehnert, iar comandantii de batalioane erau ofiteri romani, capitanii Opris si Dreve. Cadrele companiilor erau formate din ofiteri si subofiteri proveniti de la scolile speciale din Germania.
Guvernul de la Viena a obtinut asigurarea ca unitatile nu vor fi angajate impotriva celor romane. Firma Bevo din Wuppertal confectionase pentru voluntarii romani doua feluri de banderole care se aplicau pe mineca uniformei: una cu tricolorul in partea de sus si inscriptia Romania, si alta avind forma de blazon cu insemnul de stat si inscriptionarea Rumanien, in partea de sus.
In martie 1945, ?Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment Nr. 1? a fost aruncat in lupta la nord de Stettin, pentru a opri ofensiva Armatei Rosii in Pomerania. Soldatii romani imbracati in uniforme SS au luptat in cadrul Corpului de tancuri, condus de generalul Felix Steiner, ocupind pozitii pe Oder. O mare parte din unitatile de voluntari a fost concentrata pe ultima linie de aparare dinaintea Berlinului, si fara a gresi putem spune ca ultimele gloante trase impotriva trupelor sovietice au fost trase de romani. Regimentul de 3.000 de soldati a fost practic complet distrus in acele lupte.

Lupta pina in ultima clipa

Batalionul intii, comandat de Capitanul Opris, a ramas mai departe in linia de lupta, fiind atasat la III SS Panzer Korp. Noua misiune a batalionului a fost sa opreasca invazia carelor de lupta sovietice. Regimentul, redus la un batalion, a devenit Panzer Zerstörer Regiment. Dupa declansarea ofensivei din 16 aprilie 1945, al carei obiectiv era cucerirea Berlinului, sovieticii au trecut Oderul, iar regimentul roman s-a retras mai intii spre Eberswalde si de aici spre Oranienburg. Pe drum, s-a incercat impreuna cu o unitate SS, Kampfgruppe Harzer, o regrupare de forte, din resturile altor unitati militare aflate in retragere. Au fost incercari disperate, mai ales dupa ce s-a aflat de moartea lui Hitler. Trupele romanesti s-au retras pe linia Oranienburg-Neuruppin-Perleberg, iar exodul s-a sfirsit in orasul Ludwigslust, la 3 mai 1945, ocupat de americani.
La Döllersheim incepuse crearea ?Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment Nr. 3?, dar pentru ca linia frontului se apropiase foarte mult, ofiterii si subofiterii instructori au fost folositi pentru completarea pierderilor din unitatile combatante din zona. Ideea crearii unei divizii SS romanesti a fost abandonata, iar ?Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment Nr. 2? a fost transformat in regiment antitanc, sub denumirea ?SS Panzer-Zerstörer-Regiment?. Regimentele 2 si 3 n-au parasit cantonamentul pina in ultimul moment, ca si cum nimic nu s-ar fi intimplat. Abia cind rusii au inaintat adinc in Austria, colonelul Alexandrescu a dat dispozitii ca trupele sa se retraga spre vest.

Sub comanda lui Otto Skorzeny

O mare parte din voluntarii romani au fost folositi pentru crearea unor unitati de comando. Prima dintre aceste unitati, compusa din aproximativ 70 de oameni, a fost incartiruita la Korneuburg, la nord de Viena. Componentii ei au fost antrenati ca parasutisti, pentru a duce actiuni de gherila pe teritoriul inamic. Acest grup era comandat de locotenentul Müller, secundat de Virgil Popa. O alta subunitate romaneasca a fost instruita de Serviciul de Informatii al Armatei germane (Abwehr) intr-o tabara de linga Viena. O parte din personalul acestei subunitati conduse de locotenentul Pfeiffer a fost parasutata, in ultimele luni de razboi, in spatele liniilor sovietice, unde a desfasurat actiuni de sabotaj.
Cel de-al treilea si poate cel mai mare grup de comando SS romanesc a fost organizat pe linga unitatea speciala denumita SS Jagdverbaende ?Südost?, comandata de Standartenführer SS Otto Skorzeny, si a fost dislocat la Stockerau Hollabrun, linga Viena. Otto Skorzeny si-a cistigat celebritatea datorita actiunilor de comando, printre care si eliberarea lui Mussolini si Horthy. Seful acestor unitati era maiorul Benesch, iar seful detasamentului romanesc, maiorul Toba. Apropierea frontului a facut ca personalul antrenat al subunitatii romanesti de elita sa fie utilizat in actiuni de mica anvergura in timpul ultimelor saptamini de razboi.

Epilog pentru istorici

Dupa razboi, majoritatea fostilor militari din Armata Nationala Romana s-au predat trupelor americane si engleze. Au fost eliberati in mai 1946, dupa nenumarate interogatorii si anchete. La inceput, autoritatile aliate inclinau sa-i repatrieze cu forta in Romania, unde i-ar fi asteptat alte chinuri si alte inchisori. Atitudinea autoritatilor engleze s-a modificat treptat, pe masura ce au luat la cunostinta ce se intimpla in Romania. Dupa eliberarea din lagare, ofiterii si soldatii s-au risipit in lumea intreaga, cautindu-si noi rosturi in viata in tarile straine.
E de datoria istoricilor sa emita judecati asupra acestor oameni care si-au sacrificat viata pentru Romania, chiar sub steag strain.
In timp ce soldatii diviziilor ?Horia, Closca si Crisan? si ?Tudor Vladimirescu? sositi in Romania in uniforme sovietice, sub flamura rosie, sint considerati eroi, cei care au luptat sub comanda guvernului de la Viena nu au nici macar o cruce. Cum spune dictonul, vae victis.

Un general antisovietic

Generalul Platon Chirnoaga (1894 - martie 1974) a fost considerat de toti istoricii militari drept un ofiter destoinic si un remarcabil comandant. General de brigada din 1944, decorat cu ordinele ?Coroana Romaniei?, ?Steaua Romaniei?, ?Crucea de Fier? germana clasa a II-a (1941) si clasa I (1942), Platon Chirnoaga a ocupat pe rind functiile de sef operatii in statul Major al Armatei 3, subsef de stat major al Armatei 3, comandant al Regimentului 7 artilerie grea si comandant al Diviziei 4 infanterie.

?Datoria mea a fost sa caut o solutie?

In etapa antisovietica a razboiului, a fost caracterizat ca ?inzestrat cu cele mai frumoase insusiri de inteligenta, judecata si caracter, cu un simt operativ foarte dezvoltat, cu un temperament linistit, dar destul de energic? de catre generalul Petre Dumitrescu. Generalul Avramescu, in urma asediului final asupra Sevastopolului, cind Platon Chirnoaga a comandat gruparea de artilerie a Corpului de Munte, il descria ca ?ofiter superior valoros si foarte bine pregatit pentru comanda superioara, cu exceptionale calitati?.
Pe 20 octombrie 1944, in urma grelelor batalii duse la vest de Tisa, la Veczeny, unde Divizia 4 infanterie a fost introdusa de sovietici intr-un cap de pod, a fost capturat de germani. In urma anchetei s-a demonstrat ca ?generalul Chirnoaga s-a purtat ca un brav?, conducind personal lupta timp de doua zile.
?Ceea ce m-a framintat din chiar primele cinci minute ale prizonieratului a fost sa ma fixez asupra datoriei mele de roman de aici inainte. (...) Cind tara noastra era invadata de hoardele rusesti, cind era condusa de un guvern obligat sa execute cererile si vointa invadatorului; cind stiam ca de acest invadator nu vom scapa decit numai daca va fi invins, ce trebuia sa fac eu? Sa accept in pasivitate pozitia de prizonier pina la sfirsitul razboiului sau sa gasesc o formula de a lupta mai departe contra rusilor??, scria Platon Chirnoaga in memoriile sale.

Pina la capat impotriva rusilor

Dupa o scurta perioada de prizonierat in lagarul de la Lückenwald, in apropiere de Berlin, generalul Platon Chirnoaga decide sa se alature guvernului de la Viena, constituit la 10 decembrie 1944, unde ocupa portofoliul de ministru de razboi. Sub comanda sa ia nastere Armata Nationala, generalul punind conditiile ca legionarii sa execute ordinele superiorilor lor si sa renunte la salutul legionar, iar trupele sa lupte numai contra rusilor si sa nu fie trimise impotriva propriilor frati. Dupa terminarea razboiului si o perioada scurta de prizonierat angloamerican, generalul se stabileste in Germania, unde a decedat in martie 1974, fiind inmormintat la Stuttgart. In exil a publicat lucrarea ?Istoria politica si militara a razboiului Romaniei contra Rusiei sovietice: 22 iunie 1941 - 23 august 1944?.


http://www.evz.ro/investigatii/?news_id=15...db7e906b54049f3
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Victor
Posted: May 09, 2004 08:28 am
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It would be interesting to know how he arrived to the figure of 120,000 Romanian citizens that served in the Waffen SS and Wehrmacht.
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Carol I
Posted: May 09, 2004 09:40 am
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Victor has posted some time ago another version of this story: http://worldwar2.ro/forum/viewtopic.php?p=236#236
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padre
Posted: May 20, 2004 06:47 pm
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I'm very sorry. Whas a mistake. The realy number is 12.000 solders.

Florian BICHIR
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Victor
Posted: May 20, 2004 07:40 pm
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I have editted the article to correct the figure. It now shows "12.000"
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Cantemir
Posted: December 15, 2008 04:49 pm
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I realise that this article never was translated so you might to read my efforts.

ROMANIAN SS TROOPS

About 12,000 Romanians wore the uniform of Waffen SS troops, having the (Romanian) tricolour on their sleeve.

A Romanian division kept up under the leadership of the celebrated Otto Skorzeny, fought until the last moment against Soviet troops, agreeing that they should surrender only to the special commandos of the Allied forces formed by Romanians.

For years on end, 9 May was celebrated as the day of Victory over Fascism, the end of the Second World War in Europe. In Romania the Tudor Vladimrescu and Horia, Clisca and Crisan divisions, formed in the USSR at the initiative of Anei Pauker and arriving in the country under the communist banner, were hailed and on 15 August, by royal decree, the soldiers and officers dressed in Soviet uniforms, they were reintegrated into the Romanian armed forces. Pinned down by accounts seen through communist eyes, specialist manuals and studies, we refused to speak about the Romanians who fought willingly in Hitler’s army and our historiography maintains a suspicious silence thereon. Whether we are happy or not, this episode belongs to our history and must be known, we must not forget that Germany has succeeded in getting over the historical guilt just by acceptance of responsibility for the past.

The event on Sunday will give a presentation of the history of the National Army of the government in exile, created at Vienna after 23 August 1944. Of Romanians who fought up to the end against communism, convinced that their sacrifice would go down in history as a protest in the face of the Soviet steam roller that had invaded the country. Although this is not yet recorded by official historiography, it must be kept in mind that after the German army had capitulated and in Berlin the Soviet banner was fluttering, the last bullets fired against the Muscovite troops were Romanian soldiers’ ones.

In the time of the greatest worldwide conflagrations, a large number of Romanian citizens, of Romanian or German nationality fought as volunteers in other armies, in the forefront of the Wehrmacht and in the Red Army. Two of the few historians that focus on this subject are Cornel I. Scafes and Horia VI Serbanescu, the authors of the monumental work –Armata Româna. 1941 – 1945 (The Romanian Army, 1941 – 1945).

Yet, from its beginning, the SS (Schutzstaffel, “Headquarters Protection”) was a paramilitary formation organised in sections, companies, squadrons and regiments. Subsequently, alongside these formations, were created Waffen SS units. Within these units Romanian citizens, Romanians as well as ethnic Germans, who enlisted voluntarily, also participated. Until the summer of the year 1944, with the exception of the Saxons, Romanians did not serve in Germany military units.

About 75,000 Saxons wore German uniform

In spite of the pressure exercised by the German government to agree to the enlistment of Germans of Romanian nationality in the Waffen SS or Wehrmacht, Marshal Ion Antonescu refused, considering this an infringement of the sovereignty of the Romanian state. After the occupation of Yugoslavia and the transfer of Serbian Banat to German administration, the leaders of the German communities suggested that volunteers within Banat could be more easily persuaded to enlist should an SS unit be created especially for them. Thus the 7th Prinz Eugen Mountain Division was founded. The commander of this division at the beginning was but Artur Phleps, previously general in the Romanian army, who subsequently became commander of the SS Mountain Corps.

As a consequence of the heavy losses suffered by the Germans, on 13 April 1943 Antonescu finally agreed that members of the German community could enlist in the German armed forces. Up until the end of 1943, more than 60,000 German youths enlisted in Waffen SS units and approximately 15,000 in the Wehrmacht and the Organization Todt.

The Government of Vienna

A second category of volunteers that fought in the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS was represented by men of Romanian race. After the events that had led to Romania leaving the Axis Powers, a Romanian government in exile under the direction of Horia Sima and formed largely from legionaries who were refugees in Germany after January 1941, was created at Vienna. At this time a Romanian National Army, staffed exclusively by volunteers and that would continue the fight alongside Germany against Soviet Russia, was born. The form of this army was not unique, many national armies from nations occupied by the USSR: Russians (Russian Liberation Army, under the command of General Vlasov), the Byelorussian Brigade, Bulgarians, Croats, Ukrainians etc were fighting alongside Germany.

General of Division Platon Chirnoaga, previously commander of 4 Romanian Division and taken prisoner in the fight for the Tisa Fortress, was designated commander of this corps in October 1944.

Units continued to be created within the Waffen SS, however, in November 1944 the Waffen SS Grenadier Regiment No 1, formed by members of the Gărzii de Fier (Iron Guard), Romanian soldiers and specialists trained in Germany was formed. Romanian prisoners were added to them. According to some documents General Avramescu, commander of IV Romanian Army, was planning to cross from the other part of the front in winter 1944/1945 together with all the whole troops that he commanded. His plan was uncovered by conspiracy and he was killed by the Soviets.

“The most important work that the Vienna government performed was the saving of national honour. The contribution of the national army from the point of view of numbers was not great, but on a moral plane, represented an historic protest against those who sought salvation in betraying yesterday’s ally”, claim veterans of the National Army of Vienna. In addition, the Romanian Viennese Government saved about 12,000 Romanian prisoners interned in German camps, who were dying of hunger.

The Last Bullets against the Bolsheviks

The head of the national army was General Platon Chirnoaga, Minister of War in the Vienna government, having as chiefs of staff Lt Col Ciobanu, Colonel Alexandrescu and Major Bailla for aviation matters. The volunteers were assembled in the Döllersheim training camp in Austria and formed the first of the units of the future Waffen-Grenadier Division of the “Rumänische” Division No 1. Major Wehnert was named commander of the regiment and battalion commanders were Romanian officers, Captains Opris and Dreve. Company commands were formed by officers and NCOs from special schools within Germany.

The Viennese government obtained the assurance that the units would not be engaged with Romanians. The Bevo firm at Wupperthal had made two types of armband applied to the sleeve of the uniform for the Romanian volunteers: one with the (Romanian) tricolour in its upper part and the inscription “România”, and the other having the form of a blazon with coat of arms of the state and the inscription “Rümänien” in its upper part.

In March 1945 the Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment No 1 was thrown into the fighting to the north of Stettin to hold up the Red Army’s offensive in Pomerania. Romanian soldiers dressed in SS uniforms were fighting within the Tank Corps, led by General Felix Steiner, occupying positions on the Oder. A large part of the unit of volunteers was concentrated on the last line of defence in front of Berlin, and we can say with confidence that the last bullets fired against Soviet troops were fired by Romanians. The regiment of 3,000 soldiers was in practice completely destroyed in those battles.

The Fight until the very End

The first battalion, commanded by Captain Opris remained further away in the fighting line, being attached to III SS Panzer Korp. The new mission of the battalion was to hold up the invasion of the Soviet tank corps. The regiment, reduced to a battalion, became Panzer Zerstörer Regiment. After the unleashing of the offensive of 16 April 1945, whose objective was the cutting off of Berlin, the Soviets crossed the Oder and the Romanian regiment withdrew initially towards Eberswalde and from there towards Oranieburg. On the way it attempted, together with an SS unit, Kampfgruppe Harzer, a regrouping of forces from the remains of the other military units met in the retreat. They were unco-ordinated attempts, more so after news of the death of Hitler was received. Romanian troops withdrew to the Oranienburg-Neuruppin-Perieberg line and the exodus terminated in the American-occupied town of Ludwigslust on 3 May 1945. At Döllersheim the creation of the Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment No 3 began, but because the front line had got much closer, the officers and NCO instructors were used to replace the losses of the fighting units in the area. The idea of creating a Romanian SS Division was abandoned and the Waffen SS-Grenadier Regiment No 2 was transformed into an anti-tank regiment, under the name SS Panzer-Zerstörer Regiment. The II and III regiments did not leave their cantonment until the last moment, as if nothing had happened. Hardly had the Russians advanced any distance into Austria, Colonel Alexandrescu gave orders that the troops should retreat towards the west.

Under the Command of Otto Skorzeny

A large part of the Romanian volunteers was used to create commando units. The first of these units, composed of approximately 70 men, was in barracks at Korneuburg, to the north of Vienna. It components were trained as paratroops, to undertake guerrilla actions on enemy territory. This group was commanded by Lt Müller, supported by Virgil Popa. Another Romanian sub-unit was instructed by the The Service of Information of the German Army (Abwehr) in a camp near Vienna. In the last months of the war a part of the personnel of this sub-unit led by Lt Pfeiffer were parachuted into the zone of Soviet lines, where they carried out acts of sabotage.

The third and perhaps the greatest Romanian SS commando group was organised alongside the specially-named Südost SS Jagdverbaende, commanded by SS Standartenführer Otto Skorzeny, and it was relocated to the Stockerau Hollabrun near Vienna. Otto Skorzeny earnt his celebrity owing to commando actions, amongst which the liberations of Mussolini and Horthy. The head of this unit was Major Benesch, and the head of the Romanian detachment, Major Toba. The advance of the front meant that trained personnel of the elite Romanian sub-unit should be used in small scale actions within the last weeks of the war.

Epilogue for Historians

After the war, the majority of the old Romanian National army surrendered to American and English troops. They were freed in May 1946, after innumerable interrogations and investigations. At the beginning the Allied authorities were inclined to repatriate them by force to Romania where other tortures and jails awaited them. The attitude of the English authorities was modified gradually, as they took cognisance of what was happening in Romania. After their release from the camp, the officers and soldiers scattered throughout the world, seeking new lives in foreign countries.

It is the duty of historians to pronounce judgment on these men who sacrificed their lives for Romania, even under a foreign flag.

While the soldiers of the Horia, Closca and Crisan divisions arriving in Romania in Soviet uniforms, under the Red Banner, are considered heroes, those who fought under the command of the Government of Vienna do not even have a cross. As the dictum says: Vae Victis (To the Victors the Spoils).

An Anti-Soviet General

General Platon Chirnoagă (1894 – March 1974) was considered rightly by all military historians a capable officer and remarkable commander. General of Brigade from 1944, decorated with the “Coroana României” (Romanian Crown), “Steua României” (Romanian Star), German Iron Cross second class (1941) and first class (1942), Platon Chirnoagă occupied successively the posts of Head of Operations in the General Staff of III Army, Deputy Chief of Staff of III Army, commander of VII Heavy Artillery Regiment and commander of IV Infantry Division.

My Duty was to look for a Solution

In the anti-Soviet stage of the war he was characterised by General Petre Dumitrescu as “being endowed with the sharpest intelligence, judgment and character, with a very developed touch for operations, with a mild temperament but full of energy”. Following the final siege of Sebastopol, when Platon Chirnoagă commanded the artillery group of the Mountain Corps, General Avramescu described him “as a brave and superior officer with exceptional qualities and fully ready for higher command,. On 20 October 1944, in the wake of the difficult battles waged to the west of the Tisa, at Veczeny, where IV Infantry Division was inserted into the bridgehead by the Soviets, he was captured by the Germans. Following jail it was demonstrated that General Chirnoagă had carried himself as a brave man, fighting in person for two days. “What worried me even from the first five minutes of his imprisonment was that he should pin me down as to my duties as a Romanian
from this point on”. “When our country was invaded by the Russian hordes, when it was led by a government obliged to execute the demands and wishes of the invader; when we knew we were not going to be able to escape from that invader than by being victorious, what should I do?”, wrote Platon Chirnoagă in his memoirs.

Until the very End against the Russians

After a short period of imprisonment in the Lückenwald camp near Berlin, General Platon Chirnoagă decided to choose the Government at Vienna, constituted on 10 December 1944 where he held the portfolio of Minister of War. Under his command the National Army was born, the general setting conditions that the (Iron Guard) legionaries should follow the orders of their superiors and give up the Legionary salute while the troops only fought against the Russians and were not sent against their own brothers. After the end of the war and a short period of imprisonment by the Anglo-Americans, the General established himself in Germany where he passed away in March 1974, being buried in Stuttgart. In exile he published the work “The Political and Military History of the War of the Romanians against Soviet Russia – 22 June 1941 – 23 August 1944.
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Alexei2102
Posted: December 15, 2008 05:21 pm
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The last Jagdeinsatz Rumanien operation was in march 1945 - operation "Piff".

Place - near Brasov.

Conducted in cooperation with SD and Abwehr FAK 216 unit.

Details to follow on this operation, and on some other, uknown to the general public.

A.
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MMM
Posted: December 22, 2008 09:57 am
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I found nothing on this operation. What are your sources, please?
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Alexei2102
Posted: February 05, 2009 09:31 pm
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Sorry for the very late reply. My source is "The SS Hunter Battalions", by Dr. Perry Biddiscombe.

Al
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Jeroen
Posted: May 28, 2009 07:51 pm
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Still active after august 1944 was Generaloberst Alexander Lohr, commander in chief of army group E. After unsuccesfull negotiating with British he returned to his staff and was captured by Jugoslavs May 15th 1945. Later on trail for war crimes, i. e. bombing Beograd in 1941, and shot February 26th, 1947. Alexander Lohr was born in Turnu-severin, kingdom of Romania, later enlisted in austrian/herzegovin (k.u.k) army, austrian flying troops. later Luftwaffe.
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Petre
Posted: May 13, 2012 05:32 pm
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Dénes
Posted: May 13, 2012 08:00 pm
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"La 23 august 1944 nu au existat cazuri de tradare în armata româna. Doar tentative."
Wrong. For example, there were a few ARR airmen, who decided to leave Rumania along with the Germans immediately after 23 August. More followed suit later on, up until the end of the war.

Gen. Dénes
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aidan zea
Posted: August 17, 2012 10:59 am
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QUOTE
Astfel, în ianuarie 1945, de partea cealalta a frontului trecuse plutonierul Ion Valeriu Emilian, împreuna cu 119 soldati din Detasamentul 2 cavalerie Calarasi.

Does anyone know more about this defection? I mean the context in which it took place, location of the unit, the reasons a.o.
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Victor
Posted: August 17, 2012 11:21 am
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I find very curious the name of the unit: "Detasamentul 2 cavalerie Calarasi". It should have been Regimentul 2 Calarasi.
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Florin
Posted: August 18, 2012 04:47 am
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The text below is part of an email that an old gentleman who in his young years was with Waffen SS (probable the Baltic Division - he is Latvian) sent to me on January 29, 2002:

"...During WW II my only contact with Rumanian soldiers of
Luftwaffe was a few days at Aussig, April 1945, where
I shared billeting and mess hall with them during my
stay. As I did not speak Rumanian, and they did not
speak my (Latvian) language, there was very little in
conversation..."

This post has been edited by Florin on August 18, 2012 04:48 am
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